Deutschland online bookmaker http://artbetting.de/bet365/ 100% Bonus.
DEPARTMENT “HISTORY AND ECONOMY OF TURKEY”
Major directions of the Azerbaijani Turkology are based on research papers research on main stages of historical, social, political, economic and cultural development. With special emphasis on up-to-date problems of modernity, Azerbaijani scholars are engaged in studying Ataturk ideology which left its imprint on all areas of development of Turkic society during Jumhuriyyet period; they also focused on research into “Kemalism”, on all-round analysis of related problems of Jumhuriyatism, secularity (laicism), etatism, populism and nationalism.
The Historical analysis covers questions both of medieval and newest history, the latest period of the Turkish history. Azerbaijani historians lays a special emphasis on revolutionary and national-liberation movement in Turkey, restoration of principles of secularism in the country, formation of nationalism ideology, emergency of social and artistic-aesthetic though, development of education and culture, relations between religion and state, etc.
Worthy of note are research works dealing with revolutionary and national-liberation movement in Turkey. In the first turn, these include a monograph “Turkey during Young Turks, 1908-1918” (Moscow, “Nauka”, 1972) by H.Aliyev; “The struggle of the Turkish people against imperialistic occupation and Sultanate for the Republic, 1917-1924” by Y.Bagirov; idem “Turkey at Lausanne conference” (Baku, “Elm”, 1957; “The struggle of the Turkish people against French occupants in the south of Anatolia” (Baku, “Elm”, 1966). The topic of Turkish people’s antiimperialistic struggle was mirrored in I.Akhundov’s “Modern Turkey: struggle against imperialism” (Baku, “Elm”, 1977); idem “Struggle of progressive forces in modern Turkey for democracy and independence, 1945-1960”. A monograph by H.Aliyev “Turkey in the First World War”, (Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, academic edition, 1965) deals with internal situation in Turkey during the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
One of the major research papers directions of the department is the analysis of ideological principles of social and political development of Turkey in the 20 century. Azerbaijani Turkologists thrashed out Kemalist principles of secularism (laicism), its typical features, state structure of Turkey, building of new society based on secular principles of social, political and cultural life of society, secularism and Islamic values, etc. Note that the Institute of Oriental Studies has been successful in creating special research works on laicism. These include Sh.Tajibov “Establishment of laicism in the Turkish Republic”, 1966; E.Hasanova “Laicism and Islam in the Republican Turkey” (Baku, 2002). A research work of E.Hasanova “The ideology of bourgeois nationalism in Turkey” (Baku, Elm, 1966) is based on materials of the journal “Turk Yurdu”, the first social and political press organ of Young Turks, analyzed the trend of nationalism in 1908, a period of Young Turks revolutionary movement. Ideas of “Islamic socialism” in the Turkish social and political thought were thoroughly analyzed in a monograph of the same name published in 1994. A.Zamanova examined various aspects of the Turkish culture and art development in her monograph “Influence of Marxist-Leninist aesthetics on the development of progressive aesthetic thought in modern Turkey” (Baku, “Elm”, 1987). Also, the book touched upon major stages of the emergence and development of Marxist social, artistic and aesthetic thought in Turkey.
It should be noted that department’s researchers contributed to the study of relations between the Turkish Republic and the USSR. Of interest is I.Bagirov’s monograph “From the history of Soviet-Turkish relations”, (1920-1922) published in 1965. Primarily based on materials of the Azerbaijan SSR, the monograph initiated studies into Azerbaijani-Turkish ties as integral part of the Soviet-Turkish relations at the first stage of formation of new Turkey.
Among research works into political and diplomatic relations of Turkey with foreign states in the 20 century, internal political situation and other historical issues of the country there are analytical works as follows: “Internal situation in the Turkish Republic in the 1930s” (M.Seyidov); “Internal policy of the Turkish government during the Second World War”( V.Huseynov); “Major directions of Turkish policy in the Near and Middle East in the 1960-80s” (S.Majidova); “The USA and Turkey: from Truman’s doctrine to the Atlantic Alliance, 1947-1952” (A.Rasizadeh); “A brief index of materials on Turkey as reflected in Azerbaijani periodical press” (Z.Sultanova), etc.
Departments Turkologists H.Aliyev, I.Alibekov, F.Shabanov took an active part in preparing a monograph “The newest history of Turkey”, Moscow, “Nauka”, 1967. Various aspects of the Turkish history found their parallel in the collected materials “Questions of the Turkish history”, (Baku, “Elm”, 1972) prepared by Azerbaijani Turkologists. Some important aspects of the Turkish political, economic, social and cultural development were echoed in the collected works of Azerbaijani orientalists titled “Topical problems of modern Turkey”, 1988.
It should be noted that in the independence period the department’s researchers paid a special attention to the coverage of new developments in the Near East, specifically in Turkey. These include Y.Masimov’s “Ethnic relations in North Iraq in the post-Saddam period and Turkey’s policy”; A.Maharramzadeh’s “Turkey and the Armenian-Azerbaijani Nagorno Karabakh conflict”. Turkish and Azerbaijani historical ties were examined in research papersally significant M.Guliyev’s “Rescue mission of the Caucasian-Islamic army in Nakhchivan province and Quba disaster.
Department’s researchers made a great contribution to all-round research into social and political development of Turkey in the new period. Worthy of note is F.Shabanov’s “State structure and legal system of Turkey during Tanzimat”, (Baku, “Elm”, 1967). First ever in the Soviet oriental studies the researchers thoroughly analyzed organization of state power and system of administration in Turkey, as well as legal acts and institutions in the 19 century.
It has to be kept in mind that questions of the Turkish history in the Middle Ages have always been in the focus of Azerbaijani researchers. Azerbaijani Turkologists were successful in studying various aspects of Anatolian history during the Seljuk and beylik period and the Ottoman Empire epoch. Particularly important research writings include: R.Huseynov’s “Salnameh” by Syrian Michael as a source for study into the history of Turks in the 11-12 centuries in the Western Asia” and idem “Seljuks in the Transcaucasia”; H.Musayev’s “Ibn-Bibi’s “Al avamir al-alaiyye fil umur al-alaiyye” as a source for study into the history of Anatolian Seljuks”; H.Mamedov’s “The Ottoman tax system in Azerbaijan, in the 1720-30s”; Sh.Mustafayev’s “Eastern Anatolia: from Aqqoyunlu to the Ottoman Empire” (Moscow, “Nauka”, 1994); idem “Ethno-political processes in the Anatolian Turkish environment, 11-15 centuries” (Baku, “Elm”, 2010).
It would be appropriate to note that Ottoman tahrir (tax) registers are a major source for study of social and economic history of Azerbaijan and South Caucasus. The beginning of this direction in the Azerbaijani oriental studies goes back to the research papers activity of Acad. Z.M.Buniyadov. The analysis, translation and publication of these registers is one of major directions of the Institute’s and the department “History and economy of Turkey”. Worthy of note among publications on the subject are “Short Tax Register of the Irevan province” (made by Acad.Z.Buniyadov and H.Mamedov; Baku, 1996); “Comprehensive Register of the Nakhchivan Province” (made by Acad.Z.Buniyadov and H.Mamedov; Baku, 1997); “Comprehensive Register of the Ganja-Karabakh Province” (made by H.Mamedov; Baku, 2000); “Comprehensive Register of the Tiflis Province in 1728 (Borchaly and Qazakh)” (made by Sh.Mustafayev; Baku, 2001); “Comprehensive Register of the Lori Province” (made by Sh.Mustafayev; Baku, 2004); “Comprehensive Register of the Ardabil Province” (made by E.Arykly; Baku, 2004). At present, department’s researchers – medievists Sh.Mustafayev, Y.Nasirova and F.Mamedova are engaged in studying a number of Ottoman writing-books.
Note that Z.Veliyeva is engaged in translation of Karabakh-related Ottoman documents and their preparation for the press. Worthy of note are works of J.Qasimov dealing with social and political reforms in the Ottoman Empire and M.Ansarly devoted to examination of notable figures of the World Turkology. Also contributing to the Oriental studies are works of B.Bashirova “Translation and analysis of Sayahatnameh” by Ovliye Chelebi”, M.Ansarly “A.Zaki Validi Togan and Turkish Historiography”.
An emphasis should be laid on a question of “etatism” (statehood or state capitalism) as comprehensively analyzed topic of Turkey’s economy. Etatism as a main characteristic of the farming practice in Turkey has properly been examined at the Institute and found its parallel in a number of research works. This includes I.Alibekov’s “State capitalism in Turkey” (Moscow, “Nauka”, 1996) which deals with forms and methods of implementation of statehood policy in Turkey at various stages of countries social progress; banks with state capital; transport and industry; role of etatism in the social and economic development of Turkey.
Azerbaijani economists-orientalists attach great importance to the study into economic platforms and economic policy of the ruling political parties of Turkey. This question was echoed in “Economic policy of the People’s Party Government of Turkey, 1923-1939” (A.Shirinov), “Economic policy of Turkey’s Government after state overturn of 1980” (B.Hajiyev); “Economic policy of the Justice Party Government of Turkey, 1965-1971” (T.Qurbanov).
A detailed analysis has been given to foreign economic relations, particularly foreign trade policy, economic and technical cooperation between Turkey and socialist countries, primarily the USSR. These include A.Bije’s “Foreign Trade Policy of Turkey, 1920-1980”, (Baku, “Elm”, 1987); “Soviet-Turkish economic relations, 1923-1939”; I.Alibekov’s “Economic-technical cooperation of the Soviet Union with developing countries”, (Baku, “Azerneshr”, 1974), K.Samedov’s “Foreign trade policy of Turkey after the Second World War”.
Azerbaijani scholars are showing a great interest in questions related to the influence of foreign capital in the development of modern economy of Turkey. Worthy of note are two significant works – H.Aliyev’s “Foreign capital in modern Turkey” (Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, Academic edition, 1962) and I.Alibekov’s “Foreign capital in Turkey” (Baku, “Elm”, 2002).
Worthy of note is comprehensive studies of Institute’s turkologists as follows: “Social and economic problems of Turkey’s urbanization” (B.Bashirova), “Regional development and regional planning in Turkey” (A.Kerimov); a problem of training of industrial cadres in the Republic of Turkey” (G.Alibekova).
Various questions of modern economy in Turkey have been reflected in two issues of collected articles “Questions of the economic development of Iran and Turkey” – 1st issue – Baku, “Elm”, 1978; 2nd issue – Baku, “Elm”, 1988.
It should be observed that department’s researchers are continuing their studies into problems of Turkish economic development. Worthy of note are I.Alibekov’s “Market reforms in the state sector of Turkey’s economy”; A.Shimiyeva’s “Foreign economic policy of modern Turkey, 1980-present”; M.Mamadov’s “Oil problems of modern Turkey”.
In general, the latest studies of Azerbaijani turkologists are noted for variety of topics. These include the historical development of Anatolia during Ottomans; relations between Turkey, Azerbaijan and Central Asian Republics; Turkey and the Armenian-Azerbaijani Nagorno Karabakh conflict; Turkish experience in state regulation of economy; market reforms in the state sector of Turkey’s economy.
Along with research works devoted to the study of history and economy of Turkey, the Institute issued tens of monographs and books, above 400 various articles and materials inside the country and abroad. Results of some works of Azerbaijani turkologists were mirrored in and voiced as topics for discussions at different international scientific conferences.